## How is sail Power calculated?

His equation is pretty simple really. It does not tell you what the driving force is but it will give you some clues. F= 0.0034*A*V^2 Where F=force, A= sail area in square feet, V= wind velocity in knots.

## How do you calculate solar radiation pressure?

Calculate the intensity of solar radiation at the given distance from the Sun and use that to calculate the radiation pressure. From the pressure and area, calculate the force. I=Savg=3.8×1026W4π(9.0×1010m)2=3.7×103W/m2.

How do sails work physics?

Sails and keels work by providing “lift” from the fluid passing around them. So optimizing keel and wing shapes involves wing theory. The resistance experienced by a moving sailboat includes the effects of waves, eddies, and turbulence in the water, and of the vortices produced in air by the sails.

### How does a sail boat sail into the wind?

On a sailboat, wind blowing against the boat at an angle inflates the sail, and it forms a similar foil shape, creating a difference in pressure that pushes the sail perpendicular to the wind direction. It moves at an angle opposite the direction of the wind, called windward in sailing terminology.

### How is sail area calculated?

The nominal sail area is calculated as the sum of the foretriangle area (one-half the base, or J dimension, multiplied by the height, or I dimension) and the mainsail area (one-half the foot, or E dimension, multiplied by the hoist, or P dimension).

How do you find the intensity of radiation and pressure?

For a perfectly reflective surface, the radiation pressure 𝑃 exerted by electromagnetic radiation of intensity 𝐼 is given by 𝑃 = 2 𝐼 𝑐 , where 𝑐 is the speed of light.

#### How do you calculate energy from radiation?

The rate of heat transfer by emitted radiation is determined by the Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation: Qt=σeAT4 Q t = σ e A T 4 , where σ = 5.67 × 10−8 J/s · m2 · K4 is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, A is the surface area of the object, and T is its absolute temperature in kelvin.

#### Why do sails need to rotate?

By rotating the mast into the wind, we can clean up the leading edge of the airfoil and eliminate the turbulence. This increases the lift force and moves the lift angle forward, giving us more speed and better pointing ability (how close we can sail, or point, into the wind direction).

How can a sailboat sail faster than the wind?

But, if the sail is angled correctly, some of that force also drives the boat forward. The vessel continues to accelerate until that force is matched by the drag of the water. So, with clever streamlined hull designs a boat can sail faster than the wind.

## How do boat sails work?

The wind blows across the sails, creating aerodynamic lift, like an airplane wing. The lift contains a sideways force and a small forward force. The flow of water over the underwater surfaces creates lift, too—a sideways force countering the force of the wind. The combination of these forces pushes the boat forward.

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How to choose the right sail size?

With a weak wind (5-6 m/s) you can choose a sail up to 7 m², and with a stronger one (10+ m/s) — 3.5-4 m². The rider’s gender doesn’t affect the choice of equipment — it all depends on skill, wind and weight.

### How big can a solar sail be?

That’s the approximate size of a typical solar sail that could be used for space travel. Right now, NASA is testing two competing 20-meter (66 foot) solar sail propulsion system designs — a milestone in the development of this unique, fuel-free propulsion technology.

### How many miles a week should you sail?

If you’re after a leisurely sailing holiday (doing 4-5 hours of sailing a day), we’d recommend sailing around 110 – 120 nautical miles a week (this works out at 22-25 nM a day). Sailing less than this will mean you’ll be able to spend more time exploring (on land or at sea), whilst sailing more than this might mean long days at sea.