What is the valleculae and pyriform sinuses?
The valleculae and the pyriform sinuses are known as the pharyngeal recesses or side pockets, into which food may fall and reside before or after the swallowing reflex triggers. Esophagus – consists of a hollow muscular tube 23 to 25 cm long with a sphincter at each end.
What causes pharyngeal residue?
Residue at top of airway due to reduced laryngeal elevation. Laryngeal penetration and aspiration due to reduced closure of the airway entrance (arytenoid to base of epiglottis) Aspiration during swallow due to reduced laryngeal closure.
What causes reduced Epiglottic inversion?
In sum, impaired epiglottic inversion may be attributed to reduced laryngeal elevation and tongue base retraction. Therapies that target the long pharyngeal muscles, styloglossus and hyoglossus, or treatment options that preserve the same, may improve or preserve airway protection in swallowing.
What causes valleculae residue?
Reduced laryngeal elevation results in residue in area of laryngeal vestibule because larynx is too low and collects food during swallow. Because larynx is not elevating well, cricopharyngeal region does not open as widely and there is residue in pyriform sinuses.
How do you get rid of pharyngeal residue?
- To help clear pharyngeal residue by altering gravity.
- Use with reduced pharyngeal contraction (pharyngeal residue, aspiration after swallow).
What is valleculae?
Introduction. Vallecula is a term that means depression in something. The epiglottic vallecula consists of a small mucosa-lined depression (vallecula) located at the base of the tongue just between the folds of the throat on either side of the median glossoepiglottic fold.
What causes premature spillage?
Premature spill is attributed to weakness of the posterior tongue or the soft palate or both. The nerves involved are XII, X and spinal accessory XI. The small amount of barium (3 mL) assisted the patient in not revealing more dramatic premature spillage.
What is pharyngeal residue?
Pharyngeal residue, defined as the material remaining in the pharynx post swallow, is a sign of swallowing impairment and a clinical predictor of prandial aspiration. 1, 2, 3, 4 Residue can result from poor bolus propulsion, weak pharyngeal muscular squeeze, and/or impaired upper esophageal sphincter relaxation.
What happens if there is an incomplete closure of epiglottis during swallowing?
Not being able to swallow properly is called dysphagia. Dysphagia may lead to aspiration. That’s when material from your stomach and intestines enters into your respiratory tract. This serious situation can lead to pneumonia and other problems.
What can cause the epiglottis to malfunction?
Most epiglottitis is caused by bacterial, fungal or viral infection, especially among adults. Common infectious causes are Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other strep species, and respiratory tract viruses. People who have immune system problems are in greater danger of infection.
What can cause aspiration during the swallow?
The only cause for aspiration during the swallow is reduced laryngeal closure. During the swallow, the larynx closes at 3 levels: epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds, false vocal folds, and true vocal folds. In order for aspiration to occur during the swallow, food must penetrate all 3 levels.
What are the valleculae and pyriform sinuses?
The valleculae and the pyriform sinuses are known as the pharyngeal recesses or side pockets, into which food may fall and reside before or after the swallowing reflex triggers.
Is pharyngeal constriction associated with post-swallow residue in the valleculae?
Fig. 3 Pharyngeal constriction ratio measures in participants, grouped based on their pattern of displaying post-swallow residue in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses Post hoc explorations of the relationship between pharyngeal constriction and residue were performed at the swallow level for all swallows in which residue of concern was seen.
How much does pharyngeal constriction explain the variation in sinus residue measures?
Although the correlations are weak to modest, the R2values show that the degree of pharyngeal constriction explains 10 % of the variation seen in pyriform sinus residue and 17 % of the variation seen in vallecular residue measures.
What is pharyngeal residue severity?
Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial.