What is the enterocyte?
Enterocytes are the major villus epithelial cell type. They are highly specialized tall and columnar cells, with an oval nucleus located basally (Fig. 3).
What is the structure of an enterocyte?
Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small and large intestines. A glycocalyx surface coat contains digestive enzymes. Microvilli on the apical surface increase its surface area.
What are the functions of enterocytes?
In the small intestine, the amount of enterocytes is about 80 % of the total epithelial cells. The main function of enterocytes is to absorb molecules from the gut lumen and their transport toward the surrounding connective tissue and blood vessels.
What are microvilli?
Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
What is absorbed into the enterocyte?
Enterocytes in the small intestine absorb large amounts of sodium ion from the lumen, both by cotransport with organic nutrients and by exchange with protons. This flow and accumulation of sodium is ultimately responsible for absorption of water, amino acids and carbohydrates.
Where are brush border enzymes?
It is a so-called brush border enzyme, produced by cells known as enterocytes that line the intestinal walls and form the brush border (a chemical barrier through which food must pass to be absorbed).
How do enterocytes absorb?
Do enterocytes have villi?
Villi are projections into the lumen covered predominantly with mature, absorptive enterocytes, along with occasional mucus-secreting goblet cells.
What are microvilli How do these structures?
How do these structures relate to the function of intestinal cells? Microvilli are long, thin projections from the cell surface, which increase surface area without an appreciable increase in volume.
What is the function of the microvilli in the intestine?
Every cell lining the small intestine bristles with thousands of tightly packed microvilli that project into the gut lumen, forming a brush border that absorbs nutrients and protects the body from intestinal bacteria.
Where is the lumen in the body?
The lumen is the opening inside a tubular body structure that is lined by body tissue known as an epithelial membrane. Examples of body structures that have a lumen include the large intestine, small intestine, veins, and arteries.
What is brush border epithelium?
A brush border (striated border or brush border membrane) is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal and simple columnar epithelium found in different parts of the body.
What are enterenterocytes?
Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small intestine.
What is the surface coat of enterocytes?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small and large intestines. A glycocalyx surface coat contains digestive enzymes. Microvilli on the apical surface increase its surface area.
How do enterocytes act as a barrier?
Enterocytes form a barrier that offers only a very limited passage of material in both directions. Cell-cell adhesion is ensured by tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions. Epithelial goblet cells secrete mucins, which act as another physical barrier.
What are the characteristics of the enterocyte apical membrane?
The enterocyte apical membrane is characterized by the presence of microvilli that form a brush border that is evident with light microscopy.